Schuman Resonance

By L. Oliver Duffy

The indented parts are supposedly quotes from Gregg Braden’s writing and that of Davis Campbell where noted. They were in a single email posted to an email group list to which I subscribe. This is my response to that email.

Well you finally got me to chime in here so this is my two cents. I already responded on another group so I will just copy it all here. Please correct me (as I know you will) if I have misstated anything.

Earth Changes TV February 15, 2001 Time Zero for Earth Geophysical Condition

1: Earth’s Rising Base Frequency Earth’s background base frequency, or “heartbeat,” (called Schumann resonance, or SR) is rising dramatically. Though it varies among geographical regions, for decades the overall measurement was 7.8 cycles per second. This was once thought to be a constant; global military communications developed on this frequency. Recent reports set the rate at over 11 cycles, and climbing. Science doesn’t know why, or what to make of it. Gregg Braden found data collected by Norwegian and Russian researchers on this; it’s not widely reported in the U.S. (The only reference to SR to be found in the Seattle Library reference section, is tied to the weather. Science acknowledges SR as a sensitive indicator of temperature variations and worldwide weather conditions. Braden believes the fluctuating SR may be a factor in the severe storms, floods, and weather of recent years.)

I am familiar with Greg Braden’s work and I have read his book Awakening to Zero Point. I find it interesting but I do have some disagreement with the Schumann resonance statements he and others make.

The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second at last measurement. The circumference of the Earth is about 24,000 miles. That means that an electrical impulse from a lightning strike will travel around the Earth approximately 7.8 times in one second (186/24 = 7.75).

The background base resonance is measured daily by the Navel Research Labs and is posted somewhere on the web. I have looked it up in the past. It has not changed at any time since it has been measured and is not changing now. The laws of physics still work the same way today as they have always worked.

Because the Earth has a magnetic field and it is a spherical resonator, it forms what is known as a circulator. This means that radio waves (and this is what we are talking about here) travel from West to East with less attenuation than they do from East to West. The difference is about 3 decibels more loss per 1000 miles from East to West. That is to say that the signals traveling from East to West loses about one 50% more of their power per 1000 miles than do the signals traveling from West to East. The signals traveling North and South are not affected. The velocity also is not affected enough to cause any measurable difference in the frequency of resonance.

Because lightning strikes are pulses, they contain many different frequencies and because the Earth is a resonator it takes these harmonic-containing spikes and filters them into multiples of the Earth’s resonant frequency. Therefore, frequences of 7.8Hz, 15.6Hz, 23.4Hz etc. are all supported by the Earth’s resonator. Also, locally, signals from lightning strikes that have yet to travel ample distance to allow for the filtering effect can be recorded with many different frequencies intact.

Braden’s work also points to the idea that the Earth’s magnetic field affects human nature as a function of its strength. Apparently it collapses every few thousand years and then reestablishes itself in a different direction. The collapse occurs over a matter of only a few years during which time the consciousness of the planet is somehow transformed. Apparently we are entering one of these times.

With the Earth’s magnetic field diminishing we can expect to see the directional effects of the Earth’s resonator diminishing as well. This will affect the ratio of harmonics found in the Schumann resonance and that may be what is being measured. But, it does not affect the fundamental frequency of 7.8Hz as dictated by the speed of light and the circumference of the Earth.

There may be other things taking place that are not covered by the above and I will read the article you pointed to at this time to see if any new information is available.

Geophysical Condition

2: Earth’s Diminishing Magnetic Field: While earth’s “pulse” rate is rising, her magnetic field strength, on the other hand, is declining. According to Professor Bannerjee of the University of New Mexico, the field has lost up to half its intensity in the last 4,000 years. And because a forerunner of magnetic polar reversals is this field strength, Prof. Bannerjee believes that another reversal is due. Braden believes that because these cyclical Shifts are associated with reversals, Earth’s geological record indicating magnetic reversals also marks previous Shifts in history. And, within the enormous time scale represented, there were quite a few of them.

I’ll let this stand without comment.

What is a Schumann Resonance? Believe it or not, the Earth behaves like an enormous electric circuit. The atmosphere is actually a weak conductor and if there were no sources of charge, it’s existing electric charge would diffuse away in about 10 minutes. There is a ‘cavity’ defined by the surface of the Earth and the inner edge of the ionosphere 55 kilometers up. At any moment, the total charge residing in this cavity is 500,000 Coulombs. There is a vertical current flow between the ground and the ionosphere of 1 – 3 x 10^-12 Amperes per square meter. The resistance of the atmosphere is 200 Ohms. The voltage potential is 200,000 Volts.

The electrical current flow to the Earth, except through lightning, is a result of the highly ionized hydrogen particles spewed out from the sun. The positive charges, which are basically protons, have a relatively high mass as compared to the negatively charged electrons. These massive positive charges blast through the atmosphere and land on the Earth and can be considered an electrical current. We normally think of electrical current as the flow of electrons moving from a negative to a positive charge. Protrons move in the oposite way while transiting Earth’s atmosphere. It would appear then, if measured using electron based measuring equipment, that the Earth is more negatively charged and the electron flow is moving upwards when something quite different is taking place and that is that the positive charged protrons are moving downwards.

The electrons that are sent by the sun meet up with the negatively charged ionosphere and are repelled or slowed down and accumulated. The Earth’s atmosphere is an insulator to electrons and they do not have enough inertial energy to penetrate it. The ionosphere is highly negatively charged (electrons) and conductive. The charge keeps increasing until the atmosphere beaks down and the electrons find their way to the Earth in the form of lightning.

This ionospheric (sphere of ions) charge creates an electrical shield around the Earth. This shield then becomes the outer conductor of an electrical sphere (the Earth) within a sphere (the ionosphere). The atmosphere is a dielectric insulator, which separates the two. Thus a spherical capacitor as well as a spherical resonator is created and maintained. Electrical signals of sufficient wavelength (low frequency) are wave-guided around and around between this “sphere within a sphere” and is known as the base Schumann Resonance of 7.8Hz mainly traveling from West to East.

During a solar flare, the aurora borealis is seen as the electrical current through the upper atmosphere increases enough at that altitude to cause secondary emission in the form of light.

I do not believe that Earth’s electrical charge would diffuse in about 10 minutes if the sun were to burn out. This is due to the insulative nature of the atmospheric gasses keeping the charges apart. It is much like a cup that is overflowing. When you stop pouring water in it stops overflowing but does not empty itself.

Remember that an electrical charge has to be relative to something, it has to have two poles. In the case of Earth’s charge, it is between Earth itself and the ionosphere. It has been estimated that the total charge between these two poles is equivalent to about 100,000 volts or more per meter vertically. Not enough juice to break down the atmosphere at sea level. The imbalance does find its way into balance and can be seen as lightning. In addition to other causes, lightning is a function of these two opposite charges neutralizing themselves.

This brings up the question about lightning and weather. Does the weather create the lightning or does the electrical charge finding its way to Earth create the weather conditions necessary for this to happen?

There are about 1000 lightning storms at any given moment worldwide. Each produces 0.5 to 1 Ampere and these collectively account for the measured current flow in the Earth’s ‘electromagnetic’ cavity. The Schumann Resonances are quasi standing wave electromagnetic waves that exist in this cavity. Like waves on a spring, they are not present all the time, but have to be ‘excited’ to be observed. They are not caused by anything internal to the Earth, its crust or its core. They seem to be related to electrical activity in the atmosphere, particularly during times of intense lightning activity. They occur at several frequencies between 6 and 50 cycles per second; specifically 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz, with a daily variation of about +/- 0.5 Hertz.

The resonance is excited by random lightning strikes, much like blowing random wind noise over a Coke bottle and hearing a resonant tone. The daily variation is a function of the height of the ionosphere, which changes with solar activity.

So long as the properties of Earth’s electromagnetic cavity remains about the same, these frequencies remain the same. Presumably there is some change due to the solar sunspot cycle as the Earth’s ionosphere changes in response to the 11-year cycle of solar activity. Schumann resonances are most easily seen between 2000 and 2200 UT. Given that the earth’s atmosphere carries a charge, a current and a voltage, it is not surprising to find such electromagnetic waves. The resonant properties of this terrestrial cavity were first predicted by the German physicist W. O. Schumann between 1952 and 1957, and first detected by Schumann and Konig in 1954. The first spectral representation of this phenomenon was prepared by Balser and Wagner in 1960. Much of the research in the last 20 years has been conducted by the Department of the Navy who investigate Extremely Low Frequency communication with submarines.

2000 to 2200 UT is 12 noon to 2PM PST and 3PM to 5 PM EST. At least for the West Coast it is when the sun is directly overhead and delivering the greatest amount of ions locally. The most wind over the Coke bottle. This is aided by the intense ultra violet radiation being sent from the sun. It helps activate the lower ionosphere layers.


For more information, see: “Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, vol. I”,by Hans Volland, 1995 published by the CRC Press. Chapter 11 is entirely on Schumann Resonances and is written by Davis Campbell at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks AK, 99775. There is also a history of this research and an extensive bibliography. POSSIBLE OUTCOMES

1. Time will appear to speed up as we approach Zero Point. A 24 hour day will seem to about 16 hours or less. Remember the Schumann Resonance (or “heart beat” of Mother Earth) has been 7.8 cycles for thousands of years, but has been rising since 1980. It is at about 12 cycles at present. It stops at 13 cycles.

I would love to know where he gets this information about the Schumann Resonance. I guess my point is that my expertise is in electrical measurements and I have witnessed highly educated individuals making poor quality measurements, taking the resulting questionable data and concluding some of the most off the wall things from it. I have become very suspicious of other’s data and question its validity.


2. Zero Point or the Shift of the Ages has been predicted by ancient peoples for thousands of years. There have been many shifts including the one that always occurs every 13,000 years at each half of the 26,000 year, Procession of the Equinox.

This sounds really good but again, I need to see the evidence of this 13,000 year shift.

3. Zero Point or a flip of the magnetic poles will probably happen soon, within the next few years. It could possibly synchronize with the Earth’s four cycle biorhythm that occurs every 20 years on the 12th of August. The next occurrence is 12th August 2003. The Philadelphia Experiment and Montauk Project (secret military time traveling) both locked up to the 12th August/20 year biorhythm.

The sun just flipped its magnetic poles. It does this every 11 years along with a solar max. The next flip should take place in 2012. Is not that an interesting year?

4. It is said that after Zero Point the Sun will rise in the west and set in the east, approx. Past occurrences of this change have been found in ancient records.

Well, if you use a magnetic compass then East and West will indicate opposite just as North and South will indicate the opposite of today. That said, yes, the sun will rise in the new magnetic West and set in the new magnetic East but it will still rise over the Atlantic and set over the Pacific here on the North American Continent.

5. Interestingly, the New World Order plan to be in power by 2003. This may or may not happen, depending on many factors and agendas. Stay centered and follow your intuition.

Always good advice!

6. The Zero Point flip will probably introduce us to the 4th dimension. Here, everything we think or desire will instantly manifest. This includes love and fear. Our INTENTION will be of utmost importance.

I intuitively know that we are awakening from the dream of only three dimensions so this statement is consistent with my beliefs. Intent is the focal point of any happening.

7. Most technology that we know will cease to operate. Possible exceptions could be technology based on so called “Zero Point” or free energy.

It should be noted here that “Zero Point” energy may or may not be the same thing as magnetic zero point that occurs during Earth’s magnetic pole shift. During that time Earth’s magnetic field collapses then re-establishes itself in a different direction. It does not just roll over. Technology is a word derived from tools. We will have different tools and therefore different technology.

8. Our physical body is changing as we approach Zero Point. Our DNA is being “upgraded” to 12 strand. A new light body is being created. We are becoming more intuitive.

I believe that this is happening at this time regardless of the “cause”.

9. The Mayan Calendar predicted all the changes that are occurring now. They say we are going beyond technology and back to the natural cycles of nature and the Universe. By 2012 we will have entered the 5th Dimension (after the flip to the 4th Dimension at Zero Point).

10. All this information is not fearful. Be prepared for changes that will bring in the new age of light. We are going beyond money and time where fear based concepts are totally dissolved.

Amen! (the end), Oliver


Ley Lines and megalithic structures

The amazing truth of the matter is that mankind has known about the existence of an Earth encompassing energy grid for at least thousands of years. The Earth grid has simply been rediscovered in the 21st century. We now have irrefutable proof that the ‘primitive cultures’ of the past, the ancient cultures that had such a ‘limited understanding of physics’ knew about the subtle energies of the Earth and its grid pattern!

The fact is that the Earth grid itself is laid down in stone all around the world. The Earth grid are the Ley lines that have been marked by megalithic structures including dolmens, menhirs and stone circles around the Earth. Megalithic structures are found all over the world depicting the precise location of the Earth’s energy lines. In the United Kingdom places like Avebury and Stonehenge for example are situated on powerful Ley lines.

Ley lines are found all over the world and many cultures in the past have referred to the Earth’s energy lines in various ways, the Chinese called them the dragon currents in the old art of Feng-shui, the art of balancing and harmonizing the land. By building pagodas, temples and stones structures they believed that it helped to heal the Earth. Feng-shui is to the land what acupuncture is to the body, it regulates the flow of Chi, the invisible aetheric life force.

The Australian aborigines referred to energy grid lines as the dream lines that could be experienced in their dreamtime (a state of heightened awareness).

When the Earth grid was finally in place it was discovered that all pyramids and ziggurats (flat topped pyramids), sacred temple complexes and stone circles around the world were placed on the vertices of the Earth grid. We mention the temples of the Mayas in Yucatan, the pyramids at the Giza plateau and the white pyramid in Tibet. The Great Pyramid at the Giza plateau, the pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the most important one because it is situated exactly on the north pole of the Earth grid matrix. The reason why the ancients have chosen the Giza plateau for the location of the Great Pyramid is because this location has the world’s strongest aether vortex.

Most people know pyramids only from the ones in Egypt and Mexico, but pyramids are scattered all over the world in China, Japan, Ecuador, and El Salvador. Mexico (Chichen Itza), Guatemala, Peru (Machu Picchu). Some archaeologists believe that pyramids can be found in Europe as well. They have found anomalous hills covered by earth that have the shape of a pyramid in England at Silbury Hill, in Italy in Montevecchia (3 possible pyramid shapes) and Germany.

The place where the Great Pyramid is built is very special; it is the only place on Earth where the longest stretches of landmass are found in relation to water. When the Earth is circumscribed by a circle drawn through the Great Pyramid, then the total area of land on the circle exceeds the area of water far more in this place than in any other place on Earth. This was probably recognised in ancient times and it was for this reason that the zero degrees meridian, the Prime meridian was marked by one of the most amazing structures in the world, the Great Pyramid.

Joseph Campbell’s Mythic Journey

by Jonathan Young


New Perspectives Magazine — July 1994

Mythologist Joseph Campbell was a masterful storyteller. He could weave tales from every corner of the world into spell-binding narratives. His lifelong quest from childhood days as a devout Catholic altar boy to fame as the world’s most noted scholar in comparative mythology makes for a fine heroic story.

Middle ages


The adventure picks up when young Joe Campbell sees the Indians in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show in 1912. The future scholar soon became convinced that he had Indian blood. One of the striking details of the early years was Campbell’s youthful studiousness. He read his way through the children’s section of the public library and was admitted to the adult stacks at the age of eleven. He devoted himself to every available fact about Native American life, including the reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. By high school, he was already writing articles on Native American mythology, presenting many of the themes he would still be working in his eighties.

Campbell’s life was a passionate intellectual journey. College years at Columbia University were spent discovering literature while becoming a track star and playing in a jazz band on weekends. Graduate study in the Holy Grail legends of Arthurian mythology took him to Paris and Munich where he discovered the ideas of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung as well as James Joyce, Thomas Mann and modern art. This is when he saw the parallels between mythic themes in literature and psychological lessons such as those revealed in dreams.

Returning to Columbia, Campbell wanted to expand the scope of his dissertation topic beyond the Grail myth to include parallels with psychology and art. His advisors made it clear that such a daring perspective would not be acceptable. The depression had set in and, with no job prospects, Campbell abandoned doctoral work and went off to Woodstock for five years of intensive study of the imagination. At every turn, Campbell met the interesting thinkers of the time – many of whom became friends, from the philosopher Krishnamurti to Adelle Davis, who was Campbell’s first serious romantic interest long before her career as a nutritionist. During a break from his period of unsponsored scholarship, Campbell travelled to California, where he met an unknown novelist named John Steinbeck and promptly fell in love with Steinbeck’s wife, Carol. Another part of his west coast adventure was a trip up the Northwest coast to Alaska collecting marine specimens with “Doc” Ed Ricketts who was later immortalized in Steinbeck’s Cannery Row.

Teaching and writing

Finally, a job offer came from Sarah Lawrence College. This most experimental school provided the setting for the next 38 years of Campbell’s work. He became a master teacher and mentor to generations of notable women. He credits his students for bringing the element of personal application to his writing. His future wife, Jean Erdman, began as a student at Sarah Lawrence the same year that Campbell joined the faculty. She went on to star in Martha Graham’s dance company, then became a acclaimed choreographer in her own right and founded the performance dance department at New York University.

As these two prolific talents energetically pursued their creative careers they moved among the bright lights of New York’s artistic and intellectual circles. Composer John Cage and choreographer Merce Cunningham were particularly close. Indologist Heinrich Zimmer was such a kindred spirit that, upon his untimely death, Campbell was asked to edit and complete his works. Through Zimmer, Campbell met Carl Jung and participated in the Jungian Eranos Conferences in Switzerland.

It was the publication of The Hero With a Thousand Faces in 1949 that established Joseph Campbell as the preeminent comparative mythologist of our time. He wanted the book to be a guide to reading a myth. Campbell explained how challenging experiences could be seen as initiatory adventures. It was this connection between ancient stories and the emotional concerns of modern life that was distinctive. As Campbell observed, “The latest incarnation of Oedipus, the continued romance of Beauty and the Beast, stand this afternoon on the corner of 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue, waiting for the traffic light to change.”

Campbell’s prodigious scholarship went on to include the four-volume Masks of God as well as The Mythic Image and the lavishly illustrated series The Historical Atlas of World Mythology. As his influence grows, Joseph Campbell seems destined to join Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung as one of this century’s great disseminators of the psychological wisdom of mythology.

Encounters with a storyteller

Coming away from the first seminar I attended with Joseph Campbell, I had a new sense that meaning could be found in every direction. The weekend had been filled with Campbell’s enchanting storytelling. He had explained that the great scriptures of the world’s religions could be understood as metaphors for psychological changes. It was a major turning point in my life.

One conversation with him that first weekend had been especially significant for me. We were sitting down to dinner together and I mentioned that I missed the ritual of saying grace before meals. I said that it just wasn’t clear to me at that time what I should give thanks to. Campbell gently suggested that I say my thanks to the animals and plants that had given their lives so that my life would continue. In a few words, he captured the essence of an old ritual and gave it fuller meaning. It was typical of his way of showing the significance of familiar details of everyday situations.

It might be worth mentioning that Campbell was also eating meat. He liked to tease vegetarians by saying they were people who couldn’t hear a carrot scream. His humor illustrated some of the most important points, like the comment that the mid-life crisis was getting to the top of the ladder, only to discover that it was leaning against the wrong wall.

The same evening that first seminar ended, I was to lead a discussion group at a local church. It was something I did often, but this Sunday was different. It wasn’t just the usual personal problems and philisophical questions. We ended up talking about the symbolic messages available in ordinary life. I realized that Campbell’s vision had really gripped me.

There would be many more seminars with Campbell. Usually I would be his aide, taking care of details and being his driver. I would seize any chance to spend extra time with him and ask one more question. Campbell’s style was profoundly natural. He would tell stories drawn from many traditions, often weaving several stories to show similarities. His lectures were usually illustrated with slides of the sacred images of each of the cultures involved.

One setting was an ecumenical retreat center. He would occasionally comment on the images on the walls of the chapel. Noting the crucifix, Campbell would describe some of the many resurrection stories from different cultures and comment on how the symbolism suggests personal spiritual integration. His ease in drawing on a wide range of material was striking.

During his visits to Santa Barbara it was sometimes my responsibility to get him away from the seminar for a quiet meal. One evening I took him to a restaurant out on the local pier with Jean Houston who was presenting with him that weekend. Joseph Campbell was every bit as charming at dinner as at the lectern. He looked out over the oceanfront and remarked on Santa Barbara’s great beauty and how sad he was about the decline of his native New York City. He noted that his new home in Hawaii was also a place of abundant natural loveliness.

Ritual as mythic experience

Campbell believed that participation in ritual could put you into a direct experience of mythic reality. One day he told a beautiful Native American story of the buffalo princess who let herself be married to a buffalo so that her tribe could eat. It showed the deep connection between the indians and the animals they relied on for survival. That evening, Campbell suggested that we enact the story as the indians had in one of their major rituals. When our group gathered to prepare it was decided that I would play the princess. I guess it was type – casting since I am bearded and six-foot-five. Campbell was delighted with our trickster approach and said none of his groups had taken that angle before.

It sometimes fell to me to take him out to Santa Barbara Airport for his departure. This was a prized task because I would have time alone to ask more questions. He was always gracious. One time he had recounted a story from Arthur’s round table in which a horse is cut in half as a knight is entering an enchanted city. I asked why the horse had to die. He explained that I was being too literal in my reaction. The horse was a symbol for our physical nature which was not the vehicle for entrance into the sacred realm. In a few words he explained a great metaphysical principle.

The last time was in 1985, two years before he died. The topic was the beloved of the soul. Campbell described the spiritual dimensions of romantic love. When The Power of Mythtelevision series with Joseph Campbell was broadcast, millions of people were inspired by the wisdom of the late mythologist. Many lives were deeply changed by this amazing teacher. The world found out what a devoted band of Campbell’s students had known – that this man’s message was a great treasure of our time.

My training had been in comparative religion and, later, clinical psychology. Joseph Campbell showed the psychological dimensions of the great spiritual traditions. For me, Campbell was the one teacher who explained how it all fit together. My approach to therapy changed markedly to include story and soul. The seminars on creativity I had been giving became workshops on the symbolic wisdom of mythic stories. Passing on Campbell’s work had become a calling.

A few years later, the college in Santa Barbara that had sponsored the seminars with Joseph Campbell started a graduate program in psychology with an emphasis in mythology and religious studies. I eagerly accepted an offer to be one of the core professors. It was a chance to teach the ideas that Campbell had outlined to future leaders in the field of psychology. The program grew and now the Pacifica Graduate Institute has trained hundreds of therapists and has some four hundred students currently working on Masters and Doctoral degrees.

When the Campbell family was deciding where the archives would be located, Pacifica was chosen. Mrs. Campbell felt that it was the one college that was teaching the parallels between psychology and mythology in the spirit of Campbell’s pioneering work.

A mythic calling

The president of Pacifica knew that Joseph Campbell had been a mentor to me and offered me the task of building an appropriate repository for the papers and books. Beginning in 1990, my labor of love as curator of the Joseph Campbell Archives and Library was to assemble the thousands of books and years of notes Campbell gathered in nearly seventy years of scholarship. Working in his studies in New York and Honolulu with Mrs. Campbell to understand how he used each book and how he arranged his files has been memorable. When I would come across outlines for the very seminars that had effected me so deeply, it was like finding lost jewels.

The library is administered by an independent, non-profit, corporation. The facility, which formally opened in January of 1993, has displays of religious objects collected by Campbell in his travels and an extensive photo exhibit of his life and work. Choosing the pictures from the family albums was especially rewarding. Most of them have never been published and can only be seen at the archives.

The personal aspects of folklore and mythology has been the theme of the seminars I’ve been invited to give around the country for the last ten years. My notes from the many occasions I was with Joseph Campbell as he addressed these issues have been the core of my presentations. It is one of those marvelous turns that life takes that I now have the opportunity to edit these materials that have had such a personal impact on my inner life.

One of the most rewarding experiences I have as I travel to present seminars on mythic stories is to meet the many people who have been inspired by Joseph Campbell and his work. Everywhere I go people tell me stories about studying with him at Sarah Lawrence College or meeting him after one of his lectures. Whether through seeing him in person, reading his books or seeing him on television, people describe the profound impact that Joseph Campbell’s ideas have had on their lives.

Campbell’s opus is not yet fully published. His literary executors have nine additional books in various stages of the editing process. These will be released over the next several years. Many hours of lectures on video are to be released in newly edited versions. Joseph Campbell’s influence on our understanding of mythology seems to still be on the rise. When the religious history of this century is written, the impact of Joseph Campbell will surely be a major event in our collective spiritual development.


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